History[ edit ] From a letter of Philip II, King of Spain, 16th century In scholarly writing, an important objective of classifying sources is to determine their independence and reliability. For example, these ideas may be used to trace the history of scientific theories, literary elements and other information that is passed from one author to another. In scientific literaturea primary source is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories.
Protohistory The history of the world is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records.
By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood.
By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America.
Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world. The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future.
History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future.
Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations. Historiography The title page to Sources of history Historia d'Italia Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, world viewuse of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.
Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.
Or the nation state? Are there broad patterns and progress? Is human history random and devoid of any meaning? This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Philosophy of history is a branch of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history.
Philosophy of history should not be confused with historiography, which is the study of history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and practices, and its development as a discipline over time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with the history of philosophywhich is the study of the development of philosophical ideas through time.
Historical methods A depiction of the ancient Library of Alexandria Historical method basics The following questions are used by historians in modern work. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced date? Where was it produced localization? By whom was it produced authorship?
From what pre-existing material was it produced analysis? In what original form was it produced integrity?
What is the evidential value of its contents credibility? The first four are known as historical criticism ; the fifth, textual criticism ; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.
Herodotus of Halicarnassus BC — ca. However, his contemporary Thucydides c. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effectrather than as the result of divine intervention.
Greek historians also viewed history as cyclicalwith events regularly recurring. For the quality of his written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical textsas well as for biographical literature.
Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective.History (from the Greek ἱστορία, meaning ‘a learning or knowing by inquiry’) can be broadly taken to indicate the past in general but is usually defined as the study of the past from the point at which there were written sources onwards.
History (from the Greek ἱστορία, meaning ‘a learning or knowing by inquiry’) can be broadly taken to indicate the past in general but is usually defined as the study of the past from the point at which there were written sources onwards.
Eight multimedia case studies model strategies for interpreting particular types of primary sources (music, images, objects, maps, newspapers, travel narratives, official documents, personal accounts) and placing them in historical context. Sources of Indian History. History is record of past events and it is "the study of man's dealings with other men, and the adjustment of working relations between human groups." When we say that we are going to write about sources of history.
Historical sources are, at their most basic level, something that tells us about history. It may be a document, a picture, a sound recording, a book, a cinema film, a television program or an object. Any sort of artifact from the period in question that conveys information can qualify as a source.
Tour American political history and learn about famous Jews online! Access historical documents and letters written by famous characters including Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein and Mark Twain.