Of these many civilizations, two main ones were Han China and Imperial Rome.
Types and geographical distribution[ edit ] Aquaculture and Salt Production Bohai Bay Seen from space Traditional Chinese writers and modern scholars agree that there are at least five types of salt found Imperial administration in han china and different regions of what is now China: Sea salt simplified Chinese: The most important source.
In earliest times, coastal and island salterns used earthen and then iron boiling pans to reduce sea water to salt. By the 3rd century BCE, workers filtered sea water through flat beds of ashes or sand into pits to produce a brine which could be boiled or evaporated by the sun.
Over the course of the 20th century, industrial evaporators replaced these coastal salterns. Deep borehole drilling technology tapped subterranean salt pools, sometimes to the depth of half a mile, which also produced the natural gas used to boil it.
People can freely obtain it by scraping it off without refining it. More than a dozen sites on the southwest coast of the Bohai Bay show that the Dawenkou culture was already producing salt from underground brine more than 6, years ago during the Neolithic. These pottery jars may have served as "standard units of measurement in the trade and distribution of salt".
There are reliable reports of the use of iron salt pans in the 5th century BCE. He ordered first that the pools be made deeper, then that wells be dug, and eventually that narrower and more efficient shafts be sunk.
By the end of the 2nd century CE, workers had devised a system of leather valves and bamboo pipes which drew up both brine and natural gas, which they burned to boil the brine the technology they developed for the bamboo piping was eventually applied to household plumbing.
The Guanzia Han dynasty compilation of texts attributed to the 4th century BCE, includes a perhaps apocryphal discussion between the philosopher Guan Zhong and Duke Huan of the State of Qi on a proposed salt monopoly. The dialogue raised both practical questions about the effectiveness of taxes and moral questions about the nature of government.
Guan Zhong argued that direct taxes created resentment among the people, but extolled indirect taxes, such as those on salt and iron: If you were going to issue an order, "I am going to collect head money upon all of you people, both adults and children," they would certainly remonstrate loudly and angrily against you.
However, if you take firm control over the policy on salt, the people cannot manage to dodge it even though you are going to take a profit of one hundred times over. However, their profits rivaled the central government's own treasury in size and also took salt workers off the tax rolls.
The central government took notice. In BCE, Emperor Wu of Han cast about for ways to finance his expansionist policies, and at the urging of his Legalist advisors, decreed salt and iron to be state monopolies.
Fifty or so foundries were established, each using hundreds or even thousands of convict or conscript laborers. Confucian moralists replied that a minimalist government was best and argued that for the state to make a profit was to steal from the people and to undermine morality: Salt commission In the 6th and 7th centuries, the Tang government attempted to control markets and the economy directly, but after a period of success, the expense of suppressing the Anshi Rebellion in the s drained the treasury at just the time as the government's loss of local control made it difficult to collect the land tax and other direct taxes.
Officials looked for ways to raise revenues which did not depend on direct control of production and retail sales. Chancellor Liu Yan had already proved his worth by using impressed labor to dredge the long silted-over canal connecting the Huai and Yellow rivers; this project lowered transport costs, relieved food shortages, and increased tax revenues with little government investment.
The Huai river ran through Northern Jiangsu, the location of coastal salt marshes which were the major source of salt. Liu realized that if the government could control these areas, it could sell the salt at a monopoly price to merchants, who would pass the price difference on to their customers.
This monopoly price was an indirect tax which was reliably collected in advance without having to control the areas where the salt was consumed. Liu created a Salt and Iron Commission whose revenues were particularly important since the central government had lost control of the provinces.
Even better, the revenue originated in the south, where it could be safely used to buy grain to ship to the capital, Chang'anby river and canal.
In the last century of Tang rule, salt provided more than half of the government's annual revenue and prolonged its life, for a government which managed to control the salt production areas, the canal, and the capital was hard to dislodge. The basic principles of "official supervision, merchant transportation" established at this time lasted fundamentally unchanged until the 20th century.
Huang Chaofor instance, the late Tang rebel, was a failed exam candidate who became a salt merchant. In order to finance these goals, Wang relied on methods like expanding the state's monopoly on salt. Wang's allies had his rival, the poet and official Su Shiarrested for "defaming the emperor.
An old man of seventy, sickle at his waist, Feels guilty the spring mountain bamboo and bracken are sweet. It's not that the music of Shao has made him lose his sense of taste, But just that he's eaten his food for three months without salt.
The poet admitted that to write of an old man who had no salt was to point to the harshness of the imperial salt monopoly. In the salt marshes of the Huai valley, somefamilies worked for the state and were required to sell fixed quotas of salt at low prices.
Workers who were forced into debt fled or joined the army.The Han Dynasty ( BCE CE) was one of the longest of China’s major dynasties. In terms of power and prestige, the Han Dynasty in the East rivalled its almost contemporary Roman Empire in the West.
With only minor interruptions it lasted a span of over four centuries and was considered a golden age in Chinese history especially in arts, politics and technology. Oct 23, · Best Answer: During the Classical period, Han China and Mauryan/Gupta India developed many methods of political control.
Although these empires were located in different geographic regions, they both used social hierarchy, language, bureaucracy, and religion as a Status: Resolved.
The Imperial examinations or Keju (Traditional Chinese: 科舉; pinyin: kējǔ), were an essential part of the Chinese government administration from their introduction in the Han Dynasty ( B.C.E.
to C.E.) until they were abolished during Qing attempts at modernization in The examination system was systematized in the Sui Dynasty (–) as an official method for recruiting. Han China had extensive contact with neighboring countries. The power of the eunuch officials at the Imperial court grew, and the emperor at times became subject to them.
Tax revenues declined due to increased wealth and power of local land owners. Sep 11, · Rome and Han of course had different developments in technology.
For example: Rome developed aqueducts,concrete, domes, a central heating system, sewage systems, and ampitheatres. Han China developed things such as canals and the Great Wall.
Casual Han China vs Imperial Rome (caninariojana.comldwin) submitted 2 years ago by Zbwrm Assuming Han China and the Roman Empire are in the same place they were at the peak of each.