Do we consciously apply our principles of B2B to B2C for spend on automobiles, furniture, appliances, and major repairs? Buying and selling of automobiles is a favorite topic.
Messenger Debate is intensifying over the extraction of coal seam gas, particularly in NSW and Queensland. The Greens and the Nationals have joined forces to restrict mining, and now Tony Abbott has spoken Ethics of fracking against mining on farming land.
But what is coal seam gas? How dangerous is it? Will it reduce emissions? What is coal seam gas? Coal seam gas CSG and the gas that comes from shales are chemically very similar.
Just 15 years ago, shale gas supplies were non-existent, but recent drilling and fracture stimulation fracking innovations have revolutionised the natural gas market. The market has moved from tight gas supplies with huge price spikes during cold weather to low and stable prices, just because of the new supplies of shale gas.
Coal seam gas reservoirs are shallower at least the ones that get developed and have a higher concentration of gas Ethics of fracking shale reservoirs. Shale reservoirs always require fracking, while perhaps only half of coal seam gas reservoirs require fracture stimulation.
Eastern Australia has very large reserves of coal seam gas in high-permeability reservoirs that can deliver gas to the well-bores faster than coal reservoirs elsewhere. Billions of dollars will be spent in Queensland over the next five years on coal seam gas wells, liquefied natural gas LNG plants and export facilities to exploit our world-class CSG reserves.
What is shale gas? Meanwhile, Australian shale gas reservoirs have only just entered an initial evaluation stage. The shale gas reservoirs under study are in more remote locations than the coal seam gas plays of Queensland and New South Wales.
These more remote locations may mean less conflict over resource development for shale gas than coal seam gas. There is a broad long-term pattern emerging where Australia is following North America in development of first coal seam gas and then shale gas. Modern economies are incredibly dependent on inexpensive energy — and today that energy mostly comes from fossil fuels like conventional oil, gas and coal.
But we are using up a limited supply of cheap fossil fuels. As traditional oil and gas reservoirs become more expensive to find and produce, alternatives like CSG, shale gas, solar and wind power become more attractive.
At this point in time, without government incentives, CSG and shale gas currently only available in North America are cheaper than renewables.
After coal and shale gas resources are exhausted, we will need to move entirely to renewables solar and wind power nuclear or some mix of the two. But Australia and the world are not running out of coal. Community concern about coal seam gas drilling is widespread. AAP Do the same community concerns apply to both?
Community concerns are mitigated with shale reservoirs — but not entirely removed. One concern is about fracture stimulation. Fracture stimulation of coal and shale reservoirs, also known as fracking, consists of injecting a high-pressure mix of water, sand and chemicals into the reservoir.
The high-pressure water creates fractures in the reservoir. After the fracture is created, the injector pumps are shut off, the water flows back into the well, the sand stays in the fractures keeping them propped open and gas starts to flow via the fractures to the well bore.
Fractures created by this process are designed to grow tens of meters in height above the point in the well bore where they are initiated. There is a slight risk that this fracture stimulation process can break out of the gas reservoir and grow into distant shallower aquifers. The oil and gas industry say that contamination of a shallow aquifer via fracture stimulation has never happened in the 1.
However, the New York Times recently reported a case where this might have happened. Interestingly, the Times says an unusual conduit was required in the above case; the fracture stimulation did not leak directly into the aquifer, but to a nearby improperly abandoned standard well bore.
Shale reservoirs are deeper than CSG reservoirs, and are thus further away from the shallow surface aquifers on which many communities and rural properties rely.
This mitigates risks associated with the fracture stimulation process.
A more realistic — but less sensational — community concern is over industrial activity. Drilling and fracture stimulating wells requires heavy equipment, which is brought in on several dozen large trucks.
Drilling and fracture stimulating a well can be a busy and noisy process that can last a few days for shallow coal seam gas wells to several weeks for the deepest shale wells.
It can be quite disruptive to those living nearby. The Australian shale gas reservoirs currently being evaluated are in remote South Australia, the Northern Territory and Western Australia. This remoteness tends to minimise the community impact.Colorado Public Radio (CPR) produces and curates in-depth and meaningful news and music, establishing thoughtful connections to Colorado for listeners seeking to be informed, enlightened and.
It is extremely important to monitor local seismic activity before fracking starts to avoid causing harm. Set in a specially created tented village in the heart of Edinburgh, the Edinburgh International Book Festival offers something for just about every age and interest, bringing readers and writers together for inspiration, entertainment and discussion.
Dennis Cooke owns shares in Santos - one of the companies that is developing coal seam gas and shale gas in Australia. Coal seam gas (CSG) and the gas that comes from shales are chemically very. 13 results for "The Ethics of Fracking" Click Try in your search results to watch thousands of movies and TV shows at no additional cost with an Amazon Prime membership.
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4 out of . Dec 24, · Forum for Debate. SCT’s Forum for Debate provides protagonists on either side of an issue or public debate – including think tanks, commentators, academics and campaigners – with an opportunity to set out their well-considered, rational arguments and then allow a limited number of exchanges between them.