Essay on Soil Erosion:
Essay on Soil Erosion Environment Article shared by: Meaning of Soil Erosion: All land use activities, particularly those which are poorly managed, involve destruction or disturbance, to a greater or lesser extent, of natural and semi-natural ecosystems.
Almost invariably, however, it is those ecosystems, in equilibrium with their environment, which offer most effective protection to the soil that supports them.
A major consequence of ecosystem destruction and disturbance is that of soil degradation. This has been defined as the decline in soil quality caused through its misuse by human activity.
More specifically it refers to the decline in soil productivity through adverse changes in nutrient status, organic matter structural stability and concentrations of electrolytes and toxic chemicals.
In many instances, these have led to a serious decline in soil quality and productivity and it is only in recent decades that the finite nature of soil as a resource has become widely recognised.
Soil degradation is not a new phenomenon. The decline of many ancient civilizations, including the Mesopotamians of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in Iraq, the Harappans of the Indus valley in Pakistan and the Mayans of Central America, was due in part to soil degradation.
More recently an event of major significance was the dustbowl which occurred in the Great Plains of the American Midwest during the s.
At this time, intensive agricultural practices, employed in the eastern states, were transferred to the drier Midwest where the soils are lighter textured and more susceptible to erosion. A number of years of drought, combined with crop failure and destruction of the protective organic-rich topsoil, resulted in severe wind erosion.
Of this, an area slightly less than that of India about million hectares is strongly degraded, largely as a result of deforestation million hectaresinappropriate management of cropped land 83 million hectares and overgrazing 75 million hectares. In recent decades, the global rate of soil degradation has increased dramatically and is likely to increase further as we approach the twenty-first century; in it was estimated at million ha a-1 and is set to rise beyond 10 million ha a-1 by the year The effects of soil degradation are not restricted to the soil alone, but have a number of off-site implications.
Soil erosion, for example, is often associated with increased incidence of flooding, siltation of rivers lakes and reservoirs and deposition of material in low-lying areas. These problems may be compounded in areas where infiltration capacity is reduced due to compaction, hard setting or induration of soils.
Salinisation and sodification of soils are often associated with poor quality irrigation water while soil acidification is commonly linked with acidification and aluminium contamination of surface waters. Leaching of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural soils may also lead to contamination of surface and shallow ground waters.
In addition, contamination of soils by urban and industrial pollutants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides, may lead to toxic accumulation in arable produce and in herbage for grazing animals, thus having important implications for human health.
The extent of soil degradation is influenced by a number of factors, many of which are interrelated, namely soil characteristics, relief, climate, land use and socio-economic and political controls Fig. In many studies of soil degradation and its wider environmental implications, the socio-economic and political controls are often overlooked, or at least not examined in any detail, perhaps because of the difficulties associated with the collection of reliable and comparable data.An overview of the literature on the economic costs of soil erosion.
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Precipitation is the most forceful factor causing erosion. Erosion is dependent on the amount, duration, intensity and frequency of rainfall. By the action of dashing rain drops on soil, soil granules are loosened, detached and separated into fine particles.
Erosion is greater where the rainfall is. Soil Erosion Research Paper This sample Soil Erosion Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only.
Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Erosion-. Reduction of excess soil loss, critical area, cropland and urban land. Land Use Planning-. Land management conservation plans, sub division reviews, soil interpretations, maps and description, site investigations, capabilities.
Mission timeline The Spirit Mars rover and lander arrived successfully on the surface of Mars on Ground UTC on January 4, This was the start of its sol mission, but solar cell cleaning events would mean it was the start of a much longer mission, lasting until