Research consultation Primary, secondary and tertiary sources Context determines whether a source is primary, secondary or tertiary. Sources that are normally considered to fit into one category may sometimes be used as another. For example, encyclopedias are normally used as tertiary resources, but a study of how encyclopedias have evolved through time would probably use them as primary sources. Each discipline has its own set of standards for what counts as a primary source; when in doubt, ask your professor.
Introduction Not long ago, computer systems were like separate worlds, isolated from one another. The internet and related events have changed all that. A single system can be built of many different components, hardware and software, all needing to work together.
Many different technologies have been important in bridging the gaps; in the internationalization arena, Unicode has provided a lingua franca for communicating textual data. However, there remain differences in the locale data used by different systems.
The best practice for internationalization is to store and communicate language-neutral data, and format that data for the client. The same goes for parsing data, and locale-sensitive analysis of data. But there remain significant differences across systems and applications in the locale-sensitive data used for such formatting, parsing, and analysis.
Many of those differences are simply gratuitous; all within acceptable limits for human beings, but yielding different results. In many other cases there are outright errors.
Whatever the cause, the differences can cause discrepancies to creep into a heterogeneous system. This is especially serious in the case of collation sort-orderwhere different collation caused not only ordering differences, but also different results of queries!
That is, with a query of customers with names between "Abbot, Cosmo" and "Arnold, James", if different systems have different sort orders, different lists will be returned.
There are many different equally valid ways in which data can be judged to be "correct" for a particular locale. The goal for the common locale data is to make it as consistent as possible with existing locale data, and acceptable to users in that locale.
This document specifies an XML format for the communication of locale data: This provides a common format for systems to interchange locale data so that they can get the same results in the services provided by internationalization libraries.
It also provides a standard format that can allow users to customize the behavior of a system. With it, for example, collation sorting rules can be exchanged, allowing two implementations to exchange a specification of tailored collation rules.
Using the same specification, the two implementations will achieve the same results in comparing strings. Unicode LDML can also be used to let a user encapsulate specialized sorting behavior for a specific domain, or create a customized locale for a minority language.
CLDR uses an open process for reconciling differences between the locale data used on different systems and validating the data, to produce with a useful, common, consistent base of locale data.
As LDML is an interchange format, it was designed for ease of maintenance and simplicity of transformation into other formats, above efficiency of run-time lookup and use.
Implementations should consider converting LDML data into a more compact format prior to use.
An implementation that claims conformance to this specification shall: Identify the sections of the specification that it conforms to. For example, an implementation might claim conformance to all LDML features except for transforms and segments.
Interpret the relevant elements and attributes of LDML documents in accordance with the descriptions in those sections. For example, an implementation that claims conformance to the date format patterns must interpret the characters in such patterns according to Date Field Symbol Table. Declare which types of CLDR data that it uses.
For example, an implementation might declare that it only uses language names, and those with a draft status of contributed or approved. An implementation that claims conformance to Unicode locale or language identifiers shall: Specify whether Unicode locale extensions are allowed Specify the canonical form used for identifiers in terms of casing and field separator characters.Primary, secondary and tertiary sources Context determines whether a source is primary, secondary or tertiary.
Sources that are normally considered to fit . 2 Define the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search.
The best way to distinct between the sources of secondary research is to define each. Primary sources are those that are direct and un-interpreted records of . Reading Literature Students read and respond to works of literature—with emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
Secondary sources The function of these is to interpret primary sources, and so can be described as at least one step removed from the event or phenomenon under review.
Secondary source materials, then, interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources. 2 Define the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search. The best way to distinct between the sources of secondary research is to define each.
Primary sources are those that are direct and un-interpreted records of a subject that you are researching. The semantics of the various subtags is explained in Section Language Identifier Field Definitions; there are also direct links from unicode_language_subtag, caninariojana.com theoretically the unicode_language_subtag may have more than 3 letters through the IANA registration process, in practice that has not occurred.